The mission of the Greenline 40 Hybrid is to incorporate hybrid propulsion into a cruising boat that efficiently combines diesel power with the range for coastal cruising with electric motors that add the option of silent, emission-free running. At the same time, large battery storage capacity maximizes the benefit of charging while underway along with the rooftop array of solar panels. Advanced digital switching lets the use of electrical power enhance the onboard experience with such benefits as air conditioning without operating the generator and use of full-size household-style appliances.
The Greenline 40 Hybrid is the second-largest boat in the four-model series from Greenline Yachts. The other models are the 33, 39, and 48, and a 44 is planned to be introduced in 2019. In addition, Greenline has recently introduced a line of larger boats called Ocean Class, with three designs ranging from 57’ (17.4 m) to 96’ (29.3 m). The Ocean Class 65 was introduced at the 2017 Cannes Yachting Festival.
The Greenline 40 Hybrid is the model where the line makes the leap from single-diesel propulsion to twins. All of the boats are available with conventional diesel propulsion, which is the simplest option and works well with the company’s proprietary “hybrid hull design.” But the excitement around this brand is the usability of its hybrid system, which uses electric motors linked to the engine via a hydraulic-clutch system. The motors function as generators when the boat is using diesel propulsion, charging a bank of Lithium Polymer batteries.
An array of photovoltaic cells is built into the hardtop of the Greenline 40 Hybrid, located abaft the large sunroof. The panels, with forced-air cooling delivering up to 1.8 kW of electric power in daylight conditions, are capable of supplying power to onboard AC system appliances, such as the refrigerator, air-conditioning, and entertainment systems without requiring the generator or shore power hookup. This means the vessel can be kept on a mooring with its refrigerators and freezers fully operational for weeks at a time.
The hull of the Greenline 40 Hybrid is what the builder calls a “hybrid hull design,” which has evolved from the company’s initial design, which it called a “super displacement” hull. Inspired by the designers’ low-drag sailboat hulls, the Greenline 40 hull is intended to achieve maximum efficiency with low horsepower-propulsion, along with stability.
The Designers. Greenline Yachts was founded by designers Jernej and Japec Jakopin in 2009. The Slovenian brothers are the principals of J&J Design Studio, which they founded in 1983, and which has produced more than 300 designs for 55 boatbuilders, including both powerboats and sailboats.
The hybrid hull design incorporates some of the properties of sailboat hulls and uses reduced drag to exceed theoretical hull speed based on waterline length. The hybrid hull is designed to cruise efficiently at displacement speeds as well as higher speeds, maintaining stability and optimizing fuel consumption. This allows the hybrid propulsion system to be effective in both electric and diesel modes. The hull of the Greenline 40 Hybrid has, what the builder calls, stabilizers and are made of composite material and affixed to the hull surface with adhesive.
Greenline says that the benefits of this hull design are better seaworthiness, easier handling, less wake, and lower operating costs.
Greenline uses vacuum infusion to build its hulls, which creates a stronger, stiffer, lighter hull thanks to its use of the optimal amount of resin. The cored hull is made with vinylester resin, which resists osmosis much better than polyester resin, and using vacuum infusion means that the workers in the yard have reduced exposure to harsh chemicals.
Four Modes of Operation
According to Greenline, the boat has four modes:
1. Shore Power Charging Mode
The first mode is charging the batteries from shore power. When the boat is at the dock, the shore power plugs in to charge the Lithium Polymer batteries. In this mode, onboard equipment can run off the AC power from the inverter.
2. Diesel Drive Charging Mode
When the diesel engines power the boat, they also turn the electric motors/generators, which charge the batteries while underway.
3. At Anchor Charging Mode
The solar cells on the hardtop charges the batteries, which can run the AC appliances, including the refrigerator and air-conditioning, through the inverter. Should the power drain be too great for the solar panel to keep up, the diesel engine can be switched on in neutral, to turn the generator and charge the batteries.
4. Electric Drive Propulsion
In this silent operating mode, the Greenline 40 Hybrid is driven by her two electric motors with power from the Lithium-polymer battery. This means there are no emissions and only the sound of wind and water rushing past the hull.
With the optional Trip Extender Package, the Greenline 40 Hybrid can be fitted with a 6-kilowatt diesel Fischer Panda AGT-PMS 6000 generator, based on a Kubota engine. The generator charges the Lithium-polymer batteries, which in turn power the electric motors. The builder says the boat can maintain speeds up to 5 knots under this electric power, serving as a get-home system.
The helm station is located at the forward end of the salon on the starboard side. There is a fixed helm seat with a forward section that folds up to serve as a bolster for leaning, and an angled wooden footrest for use when standing at the helm. A fold-down, wooden platform is hinged to the aft side of the helm console and allows for a more comfortable helm position. The platform also makes it easier to step out the sliding door to the side deck, which makes for simpler, short-handed operation while also providing ventilation.
The helm dashboard has an angled upper panel suitable for a single multifunction navigation display flanked by engine tachs and temperature gauges on either side.
The autopilot control head and VHF are within easy reach on the lower, more horizontal panel, as are an array of gauges and displays. Though these displays are readable while standing at the helm, one would have to lean forward from the seated position to keep an eye on them. The engine throttle and shift controls are also located on this surface on the starboard side, where they fall easily to hand, as do rocker switches controlling navigation lights and other electrical functions. A wood-rimmed, steel-spoked wheel is mounted vertically on the console.
On the lowest, vertical surface of the helm console are mounted such important components as bow thruster and trim tab controls, and we would prefer those to be mounted where they’re more visible and less likely to be bumped. Windshield wiper controls, a 12V power receptacle, and the control head for the stereo system are also located there.
Visibility. From the helm are excellent lines of sight forward and to the sides, thanks to a large three-pane windshield with not too much rake and thin mullions, as well as the side door and salon side windows. Sightlines are obscured a bit aft by the full-size refrigerator in the starboard corner of the salon and to port by the overhead cabinets in the galley. Because the salon is situated around the helm area, the helmsman will not want for company with a handy cushion seat opposite, and the main salon lounge close by.
The side decks allow easy transit to the foredeck, either from the cockpit or by exiting through the helm side door. On the foredeck, there’s a sun pad with three cupholders set into stainless-steel inserts to either side. An 1,000-watt electric windlass is forward, with an 11" (27.94 cm) bow cleat for anchoring. The stainless-steel pool-type anchor is retrieved to a hawse pipe set into a stainless-steel anchor plate on the port bow. A hatch to starboard enables access to the chain locker.
The cockpit is sheltered by the large hardtop, which extends all the way to the transom from the aft edge of the house, supported by pillars at the stern quarters and providing shade on bright days. Additional support for the top comes from broad panel struts that line up with the aft end of the deckhouse, allowing that hardtop to be wider and supported, covering part of the side decks as well. We like this design because it permits the addition of isinglass to button up the aft deck for three-season boating, thus adding to the boat’s utility.
Stowage. The cockpit has boarding doors to both port and starboard that open by swinging inward. Hatches to port and starboard of centerline in the teak cockpit sole open to reveal large lockers that can be used to stow fenders and dock lines, provisions, and a folding dining table and chairs for the cockpit.
The transom folds out at the push of a button from a remote keypad positioned in one of two lockers in the aft corners of the cockpit to serve as a wide swim platform, expanding the outdoor space. There’s a stainless-steel boarding ladder on the starboard side.
The Engine Room
Greenline offers three diesel horsepower options, all from Volvo Penta, from 110 hp to 220 hp. All use a conventional straight shaft. The boat we inspected had a pair of 220-hp Volvo Penta D3 diesels rigged in line with a pair of 10 kW electric motors that are each coupled to their respective diesel engine with a hydraulically-operated clutch. The two polyethylene diesel fuel tanks total 185 gallons (700 L).
Battery Power. When using the 10-kW electric motors for propulsion, the boat runs silently -- almost disconcertingly so, at first. The Lithium-polymer batteries are rated for thousands of cycles of 100% discharge, and they outperform lead batteries by a factor of five or more, according to the builder. The batteries are only a third the size of a lead-battery array of comparable rating, and seven times lighter. They have a life expectancy of 10 years or more, we are told. The system also uses an automatic charger/inverter rated for 48V/70 Amps/4500 W/ 5000 VA.
The electric motors are also 7-kW generators. When each diesel runs it turns the generator as it propels the boat, charging two Lithium-polymer batteries totaling 23.0 kWh. Greenline began incorporating batteries of this type in 2009, though they have become more popular in automotive hybrid applications since then.
The salon of the Greenline 40 Hybrid has many features and attributes that allow the crew to spend quality time together while underway, at anchor or at the dock. The deck of the boat is all one level from the transom forward to the helm station and companionway stairs. This design makes it safer to get around the boat, particularly at sea or in low-light conditions. Huge windows and the windshield forward as well as a large electric sunroof let natural light flood the space and allow for excellent views while underway. LED lights are set into the overhead. The deck is a dark laminate.
At the forward end of the salon is the helm station to starboard and a console with angled top with sliding hatches to port. This portside console houses the guest stateroom on the deck below, and this hatch opens to allow ventilation and also simplify communication but closes up for privacy. Abaft this console is a flat area with a cushion for use as a companion seat. When the cushion is moved, however, the recessed area beneath acts as a receptacle for chart books and navigation equipment or can serve as a side table for keeping serving dishes within reach of the L-shaped lounge located just abaft.
The wooden dining table is not fixed to the deck and stands on hi-lo legs to serve as a platform with filler cushion to make the lounge a berth. It has one leaf that folds to help reduce its size and keep it out of the way.
Opposite the lounge and abaft the helm seat is a popup flatscreen TV, which raises electrically from the cabinets that line the starboard side of the salon and provide additional stowage.
The galley is located aft and to port, with a full-size refrigerator positioned in the starboard corner. Because of Greenline’s thoughtful use of power, the refrigerator is a spacious 56.5-gallon (214 L) household model. The counters have a fiddled edge to help contain spills, and the joinery is all radiused to reduce bumps and bruises when conditions get sporty.
Galley amenities include a microwave, a two-burner ceramic cook top, and double stainless-steel sinks as well as a countertop hatch to a dedicated trash receptacle that can be accessed from the side deck for easy disposal of waste. Five lockers and four overhead cabinets add to the storage. There’s a lighted liquor cabinet next to the fridge.
In the aft bulkhead of the house, the sliding door to the cockpit is shifted slightly to starboard of centerline. The door slides out of the way abaft the refrigerator. The galley counter backs up to an aft window that folds up with the help of a ram to the hardtop, and a section of galley counter that serves as a backsplash folds out, extending the galley counter into the cockpit and unifying the indoor and outdoor areas.
The Master Stateroom
The Greenline 40 Hybrid has what the company calls an “adaptive” owner’s cabin. Located forward, with a pair of twin-size, 6’6” (1.98 m) by 2’7” (.79 m) berths, that are 8” (20.32 cm) thick, that scissor outward, separating them on their aft ends so they form a V configuration or allowing them to be pushed together to form a double berth for a couple. This allows for flexibility of crew. It also provides more deck room between the berths when in the V position, which makes this a more functional living space. The deck is covered in carpet.
The master has two opening ports for ventilation in the hullsides as well as a lexan hatch overhead that lets in light and opens to admit fresh air. The sole is carpeted, and there are LED lights set into the overhead, as well as a pair of LED reading lights.
Eight Lockers line the master stateroom at shoulder height for convenient, easy-access stowage, and hanging lockers are located in the aft port and starboard corners, with shelves above. Windows line the sides and forward end of the trunk cabin, letting in plenty of natural light, helping eliminate any cave-like feel and helping to reduce a reliance on electric lights seen on many boats.
The single, shared head compartment has a separate shower with bench seat. The head has a basin-style sink, with stowage in the rounded vanity beneath. Additional lockers add to the storage while the trunk cabin side windows add natural light, yet can be covered by a translucent Roman shade when privacy is called for. The head has direct access from the master forward as well as a door that grants access from the passageway. Both doors have locks to control access.
The guest stateroom is located on the portside amidships and features two twin berths, which are the same dimensions as those in the master, as well as a seat. Lockers above are complemented by a hanging locker, and there’s an opening port for ventilation.
The Greenline 40 Hybrid has not yet been tested by BoatTEST.com. However, the folks at Greenline have tested the boat, and they tell us that she has a 700-nautical-mile range under twin diesel power at 7 knots. When using the 10-kW electric motors for propulsion, the boat runs silently with a top speed of 6.5 knots, and cruises at 4 knots with a 20-nautical-mile range, the builder says.
Starting around $400,000.
The Greenline 40 Hybrid makes smart use of the Lithium-polymer batteries beyond just propulsion. Allowing for use of large, residential-style appliances and air-conditioning without relying on a diesel genset will be a boon to cruisers who spend time on the hook in remote anchorages. The idea of shutting off all fossil-fuel-burning engines and just listening to the wind and the water may change the way one thinks about boating.
While having a cruising range of only 20 miles (and an endurance of about three hours) might not seem like much at first, just think about how that quiet time might be used. For example, when the boat is employed for afternoon picnics out to the islands and back with a boat load of guests, its advantages are obvious -- friends can actually have a conversation without having to raise their voices…or…
…taking a weeklong cruise in a place such as Maine, where the next harbor or anchorage is only an hour or two away…or…
…on a long day’s journey, turning off the diesel and turning on the silent power when a spouse or a grandchild is taking a nap…or…
…simply alternating battery power and diesel power over a long cruise to reduce fuel consumption and increase the range of the boat’s 185-gallon (700 L) fuel tank.
Standard and Optional Features
|Outlet: 12-Volt Acc||Standard|
Boats More Than 30 Feet
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