For many years now, boaters have debated
the question of 4-blade propellers versus 3-blades. The traditional argument is
that 4-blades are slow and 3-blades are fast, end of discussion. Today, new trends
in the marine marketplace, higher fuel prices and challenging economic times are
causing boaters to take a second look at this old debate. Speed is now a much smaller
part of the boating equation, and now practical, real world performance is the name
of the game for most people. Which props should you be using, 4-blade or 3?
Learn more about PowerTech propellers.
The world’s new emphasis on economy and efficiency
is causing everyone to take a second look at 4-bladed props.
You should, too.
In the beginning, the idea that 4-blades were slower than 3-blades was true to a
certain extent, but that is because many of those 4-blades were not designed with
speed in mind. Instead, the few designs that were available were intended to cure
handling issues such as ventilation, cornering blowout, motor elevation requirements,
and hole shot issues. Without many options in blade design, and very few of them
truly intended to be particularly fast, the 4-blade got branded as slow, while their
other performance benefits were largely dismissed.
By contrast, today’s 4-blade propeller designs have evolved into both all-purpose
and highly specialized geometries. These propellers can be tailored to not only
address those traditional handling issues, but can also be tailored to improve a
boat’s performance envelope, which can, in some cases, even include speed.
Reasons for 4 Blades
The increased blade area afforded by the addition
of the fourth blade can provide increased water displacement capability, lift, and
grip, as compared to the comparable 3-blade propeller. In terms of actual boat performance,
these characteristics can combine to enhance handling, hole shot, low-speed planning
ability, cruise efficiency, fuel efficiency, load-carrying performance, big seas
performance, following seas/down current performance, ventilation/cavitation resistance,
motor elevation capability, etc. In short, a 4-blade propeller can improve all those
characteristics that make for practical, all-around boat performance.
Four-blade props usually have a lower pitch
to keep the rpms the same as a 3-blade.
But are 4-Blades Slow?
So, why might a 4-blade generally be slower
than its 3-blade counterpart? To be honest, many 3-blade/4-blade speed comparisons
are simply not fair. That’s because the respective propellers in question are simply
different styles, designed with different purposes in mind—different diameters,
rakes, cupping, and blade shapes.
If, however, for comparison purposes, we take two propellers, identical in design
(blade shape, diameter, rake, cup, etc.) that is appropriate for a given application,
and simply add a propeller blade, we get a truer representation of just where the
difference lies. The addition of the extra blade causes increased drag, which, in
turn, requires more horsepower, in order to achieve the same rpm. Since the horsepower
is limited, the rpms drop, and the speed will tend to drop with it. This is why,
when going from a 3-blade to a 4-blade, the pitch is dropped an inch, or more, in
order to keep rpm parity. It is this difference in pitch that causes any potential
speed differentials between the 3-blade and the 4.
Three-blade props can take a bigger bite but
have their limitations.
As to any actual speed loss between the two,
in many cases, it is actually quite small (generally 1-3 mph). The reason is, although
the 4-blade is one-inch lower in pitch, it runs more efficiently than its 3-blade
competitor, allowing it to run closer to its theoretical speed than the 3-blade,
thereby, effectively closing the gap presented by the pitch differential.
Designing the Solution
As we have learned more about what makes a propeller work and not work, and about
how boats and motors perform and do not perform, we have designed propellers that
address the inherent strengths AND weaknesses of each of these respective pieces
of the puzzle. These designs have become even more important as more and more specialized
boat designs and motor trends have entered the marketplace and as new trends and
economic challenges arise. All that said, the most important part of the equation
remains the customer’s performance expectation and satisfaction; so, the goal is
to match the propeller to the boat, motor, AND the customer’s needs…as always, the
right tool for the right job.